If the printer does not attempt to print, or the print job is not fully completed then there may be a communication issue between your computer and the printer. A communication-related problem may be the cause of other printing issues such as poor print quality when prints are smeared or fuzzy. EPSON Status Monitor may not operate when a communication problem or conflict is present.
The possible causes of a communication-related issue and how to troubleshoot them are explained in this article.
This article applies to Epson printers connected to a computer via a Parallel or USB interface cable. Epson products with a FireWire interface cannot be used via FireWire as Vista does not fully support it. The driver will be successfully installed and configured when using the USB or Parallel interface. For more information, see article "FireWire support information for Windows Vista and Windows 7".
This article does not apply to RTD products or printers used via a wired, wireless, or shared network connection.
If you are experiencing a problem printing from your computer to your printer, the first thing to check is that the printer itself is working correctly. This will help to identify the issue. Follow the steps below.
If you have received an error message on the computer, please make an exact note of the message, and use the search/find box to search the online support articles for a solution first.
Check that there is power to the printer.
Check that the printer will power on.
Power is indicated by a green, red, or amber light on the printer's control panel. For printers with an LCD panel, when the LCD is on this also indicates that there is power to the printer.
If the product is powered off, check the power cable is connected and it is on at the power point.
Hold down the power button for five seconds to power it on.
Check for any error lights on the printer control panel, or error messages on the printer's LCD panel.
Power on the printer.
If there is power to the printer but printing does not complete, check for a red or, for some printers, an amber light on the printer control panel.
Control panel displaying red error lights:
A red light indicates an issue with the printer. Both the error and light needs to be cleared in order to print again or undertake further troubleshooting if required.
If a red error light is displayed on the printer control panel, refer to your user guide to determine the cause of the error. An ink cartridge may be out, or there may be a 'cover open' or paper error.
For printers with an LCD panel, check the screen for any error messages or error codes.
Product with an LCD screen, displaying an error:
If an error message is displayed on the LCD panel follow the appropriate action for that error. The issue would need to be cleared in order to print again, or undertake further troubleshooting if required.
Refer to the User Guide that came with your product, or use the search/find box to search the online support articles for a solution.
If only a solid green light is on the printer and no error messages are present on the LCD panel, the printer should be capable of normal functions.
For printers with an LCD panel, ensure that it is not in the Setup or Maintenance mode.
Stylus printer with an LCD panel, showing it's in the Setup mode:
If the product is in the Setup or Maintenance mode, this may not allow printing from a computer.
Press one of the other mode buttons such as Copy mode or the Setup button to exit the menu and return to the normal display.
Example of the RX700 control panel:
Also check that the product is not in the sleep mode. If a green light is on but nothing is shown on the LCD panel, press any button except the Power button to wake it from sleep mode. Some printers have a sleep mode where a screen saver will be shown, press any button except the power button to wake it from sleep mode.
Refer to the table below and follow the recommended action.
The check was not performed correctly or there is a fault with the printer.
Perform the check again. If it fails again, the printer may require a service. Contact Epson - no further troubleshooting is necessary at this point.
This confirms that the printer itself is fully working. The issue is related to either a breakdown in communication between the printer and the computer, the configuration of the Windows system, or the driver installation on the Windows computer.
Reconnect the printer to the computer and follow the next series of steps to troubleshoot the issue.
Printing is slow
Slow printing can be caused by settings in the printer driver, the size of the data being sent to the printer (e.g. a large file such as a photo), in addition to the spooling system. It is also possible that there is a physical problem with the printer.
Check the cable connection between the printer and the computer and connect it directly. The printer is designed to be connected directly to the computer.
Check that the data cable (Parallel or USB) is firmly secured at both ends, at both the printer port and the port on the computer.
Reseat the cable if necessary.
Check that the cable is not taut as it may be pulled out of the port, resulting in a loss of communication between the printer and computer.
Connect the printer directly to the port on the computer. Any other configuration may render further tests invalid.
Connecting your product through another peripheral (e.g. a Scanner, Switch box, external USB hub) can cause problems. Even if these devices have been connected in the past with no problems, they must still be eliminated whilst troubleshooting. For products connected via a USB hub, this article may offer a solution.
If the issue is still present, we recommend that you try connecting the product to another port on computer. If connecting via a USB cable, try the following:
Try a different USB port.
Check that the USB ports you are using are built-in ports, native to the computer's motherboard. USB PCI cards are not supported if they are not detecting the printer. To do this, open Device Manager and expand the Universal Serial Bus Controllers heading. Look for a 'PCI to USB'Host Controller entry e.g. 'PCI to USB Host Controller', 'PCI to USB Open Host Controller', 'PCI to USB Enhanced Host Controller'.
Check the length of the data cable. For reliability, the maximum length of data cable that we recommend is 1.8 metres. If the problem is still present, try a different cable. If you do not have another cable or the issue remains, try a different interface to connect the printer if possible e.g. if the printer has both a USB and Parallel interface, change from using the Parallel port to the USB port and vice versa.
Check that the computer meets the printer's minimum system requirements.
You can find most of the information about your system in System Properties. Right-click on Computer then left-click on Properties.
Listed on the General tab is the amount of installed RAM, CPU type and speed, and the specific operating system version:
Your computer must be a Windows Vista pre-installed model, or a Windows 2000 or XP pre-installed model that was formatted and installed with Windows Vista. (Operating systems upgraded from Windows ME, 98, and 95 are not supported by the software.)
You can check the amount of free hard drive space via Computer. Right-click on the local hard drive (normally C:) then left-click on Properties. The amount of used and available hard disc space will be detailed here.
Check the details of the system against the minimum specifications as stated in the User Guide provided on the CD-ROM for your product.
Ensure that Windows is fully updated. This is very important, as Microsoft have identified issues with Vista which can effect the enumeration of drivers, particularly with USB devices. This has been fixed with updates and the latest Service Pack.
These are described in some of the following Microsoft articles:
The latest updates can be downloaded and installed through the Windows Update or Microsoft Update tool, available from Microsoft website.
It is important that your computer meets the minimum system requirements as specified by Epson. These system requirements include the operating system version, installed RAM, free hard drive space, CPU type and CPU speed.
If Status Monitor reports a problem relating to the ink cartridges or paper feed, please follow the recommend guidance to clear the error and return the printer to a 'Ready' status.
If Status Monitor will not print from the computer and reports a "Communication Error" or states 'The printer is not ready to print" but the printer has passed the printer operation check, continue to follow this troubleshooting article.
Example of a possible Status Monitor error message
Open Device Manager to check if your system provides sufficient support for the printer's interface, if your Epson product is detected by the computer, and for any errors that relate to your Epson product.
Your printer will need to be powered ON and directly connected to the port on the computer for this exercise.
If you have an All-In-One, ensure that none of the following are connected at the same time when setting-up or using your All-In-One as this may cause a conflict:
a Digital Camera,
another All-In-One (printer/scanner/copier),
Right-click on Computer and left-click on Properties. Click on the Device Manager on the left of the window. Alternatively, open the Start menu and type Device Manager into the Start Search field and press Enter. Click Continue if the Windows User Account Control asks your permission to continue. Click here if you require help.
Follow the section that is appropriate for how your printer connects to your computer:
Incorrect or incomplete software installation can lead to USB problems. In Windows Vista, you should only connect the printer to the computer and power it on when the EPSON installation program prompts you to. It should not be connected and powered on before installing the software.
Make sure that your computer provides USB support. Follow the steps below:
Click on the plus sign [+] next to Universal Serial Bus Controllers.
Check if the USB Universal Host Controller and the USB Root Hub are identified (the USB Universal Host Controller is listed with a name e.g. Intel, VIA, SiS, Nvidia, ALi).
Figure 1: The USB Host Controller is identified as 'Intel (R) ICH9 Family' with an individual ID (2934):
If the USB Universal Host Controller and the USB Root Hub are identified your Windows operating system provides sufficient USB support.
If Universal Serial Bus Controllers is not listed, your system cannot detect the USB controllers and there may be a hardware issue. In the event of this, contact your dealer for advice. No further troubleshooting is necessary at this point.
If the Universal Serial Bus Controller and USB Root Hub are not identified (e.g. a manufacturer name is not provided, only 'Generic' or 'Standard'), your USB driver stack may need to be updated.
An example of this is below - note how a specific name is not given, only 'Standard Enhanced PCI to USB Host Controller':
In the event of this, try updating the driver in Device Manager. Right-click on the USB Host Controller and left-click on 'Update Driver'. Follow the steps through, selecting to connect to Windows Update and the Update Driver Wizard should update the driver accordingly. Repeat this step for any unidentifiedUSB Host Controllers.
For detailed information about your computer, contact your dealer.
Device Manager confirms the system provides USB support, but this option was not listed as an available port setting in "Ports":
The device drivers for the USB Host Controllers may need to be updated. However, we recommend that you remove the entry for the Epson device from Device Manager and uninstall the printer software. This will allow you to start the installation again. Refer to the next section.
Check if Device Manager detects the printer and if there is an error with the device:
Look for the following headings:
Universal Serial Bus Controllers
If the heading branch is not already expanded [-], click the [+] to expand the heading and view the devices below it.
Look under Universal Serial Bus Controllers for USB Printing Support.
If your USB and your printer drivers are correctly installed, USB Printing Support should appear under Universal Serial Bus Controllers in Device Manager. 'USB Printing Support' represents your printer when it is connected (it doesn't appear when it's not powered on and connected to the computer):
If USB Printing Supportdoes appear, the printer software is correctly installed.
Try selecting a different USB port in the Ports tab of the printer Properties (Step 12). Failing this, open Device Manager and locate USB Printing Support. Right-click on it then left-click on Uninstall. Close Device Manager then proceed to Step 17 to uninstall and reinstall the printer software.
If USB Printing Supportdoes not appear under Universal Serial Bus Controllers, the printer software is not correctly installed. Follow the next series of steps:
Look for any of the following entries under Other Devices:
USB Printer USB 2.0 Printer USB MFP USB 2.0 MFP EPSON Scanner (All-In-Ones only) EPSON printer name (e.g. EPSON Stylus DX7400)
Figure 1: USB2.0 Printer (Hi-speed) appears under Other Devices:
If any of these items appear under Other Devices, this confirms that the printer software is not installed correctly. For any devices listed as above, except USB 2.0 MFP, proceed to Step 6 in this section.
If USB 2.0 MFP appears, do not move to the next step; this error is displayed because your installation of Windows does not have a generic Windows system file already installed. The USB2.0 MFP (High Speed) device needs to be installed using a generic Windows driver file USBCCGP.sys. Please use the following procedure to first find the location of this file and then update the unit with this driver:
Click Start and click on Search.
Select the Advanced Search option.
Change the search location from indexed to search Computer for the location of the USBCCGP.sys file, this may also be shown as USBCCGP.SY_.
If it is not found, search your Windows Vista CD/DVD for the location of the file.
Once found, make a note of the location of the file.
Click on Start and then Control Panel.
In Control Panel click on Device Manager.
Right-click on the USB2.0 MFP (High Speed) entry then left-click on Update Driver.
The Update Driver Wizard will appear.
Click on the option to 'Browse My Computer for Driver Software'.
Select the location that you found the USBCCGP file and click on Next.
This should then install the USB Composite driver required by the unit and allow you to continue the installation of the other functions of the unit, such as the USB Printing Support and USB Mass Storage Device.
If none of these items appear under Other Devices, the printer may not be detected by the computer.
Click on Action from the top of the window then click on Scan for hardware changes, or unplug the USB cable from the printer then plug it into the printer again:
Once you have confirmed that these items appear, proceed to Step 6 in this section.
If these items do not appear, check for Unknown Device listed under Other Devices and Universal Serial Bus Controllers.
If Unknown Deviceis not listed, check for USB Printing Support. If this is listed, the device should now have been installed so try printing a Windows Test Page.
If Unknown Deviceis listed, the device may not be getting enough power from the USB Controllers. Check the following items:
Ensure that the device is connected directly to the computer. If the USB device is connected to a USB port on a keyboard or hub, unplug it and plug it into a USB port on the computer.
The device may not be getting enough power. If other USB devices are connected to the system, remove all other USB devices (except keyboard and mouse) and try a different available USB port. If this solves the issue, you could try using a powered USB hub in future to power other devices.
If the device does not appear with the device name or USB Printer or USB MFP, click on Action then click on Scan for hardware changes. Alternatively, unplug the USB cable from the printer, then plug it into the printer again.
If the Unknown Devicereappears, right-click on it then left-click on Uninstall. A prompt will appear, click OK then close to Device Manager. Proceed to Step 17 to uninstall the software.
If Unknown Devicedoes not reappear but another listing appears on the menu, check the name and where it appears. You may need to refer to all the guidance in this step.
If none of these items appear, the printer is not detected so unplug other USB devices and connect only your USB printer.
Click on the [+] beside Universal Serial Bus Controllers.
Check under Universal Serial Bus Controllers for USB Printer, USB 2.0 Printer, USB MFP, or USB 2.0 MFP.
If any of these items are listed, click on Action then click on Scan for hardware changes. Alternatively, unplug the USB cable from the printer, then plug it into the printer again. If the entry reappears with an error, move to Step 6 in this section.
If the entry does not reappear, but USB Printing Support appears, the device has now been installed - try printing a Windows Test Page from the General tab in the printer Properties.
If the Epson device is still not detected i.e. none of the afore-mentioned entries appear under Other Devices or Universal Serial Bus Controllers, there may be a problem with your computer.
Try a different USB port and failing this, a different USB cable. The USB cable should be Revision 1.1 or 2.0 compliant and under 2 metres.
Microsoft also recommend the following:
Double-click the USB Root Hub, click the Power tab, and then click Power Properties (if it is shown). The available ports and power usage is shown. If the displayed power is over 500mA, remove the devices and use a powered HUB. To check the properties of a HUB, double-click HUB and the HUB information window opens.
If the device still fails to display, try connecting it to a different computer. Alternatively, contact Microsoft or your PC vendor for support.
Check the entries for the following Device Manager Error symbols:
If a question mark appears over an identified device, there is an error with the driver installation or the driver may need to be updated.
For an Epson device, you can update the driver; right-click on the entry and left-click on Update Driver. Should the entry not refer to the Epson product, contact your vendor for support.
This will open the Update Driver Wizard. Follow the on-screen prompts, allowing Windows to connect to Windows Updates for that time. If the wizard fails to update the driver and the erroneous entry is still listed, proceed to Step 7 in this section.
If a black triangle is over a device icon, the device has been disabled.
Right-click on the device entry and left-click on Enable. If there are any other error symbols over the device icon, check the guidance in this section.
If an Exclamation Mark is over a device icon, there is an error with the driver or a suitable driver could not be found (and not installed).
Proceed to Step 7 in this section.
Should the entry not refer to the Epson product, contact your vendor for support - you will need to update or reinstall the device's driver.
For an Epson device, right-click on the device entry for your printer (e.g. USB Printer, USB MFP) and left-click Uninstall.
A Confirm Device Removal prompt will appear, click OK then close Device Manager. You will need to uninstall the software - move to Step 17 for instructions.
The LPT1 port should be listed as ECP Printer Port (LPT1).
If it is not listed as ECP Printer Port (LPT1) and appears as EPP Printer Port (LPT1) or Printer Port (LPT1) for example, it may be capable of operating but any other settings can cause communication problems such as those being experienced.
The setting can be changed in the BIOS, however the BIOS is an integral part of any computer and incorrect changes made in the BIOS can render the machine unusable.
The LPT1 Printer Port entry should be listed without any errors. If it is listed without an error, but you are still unable to print please move to Step 17 to uninstall and reinstall the printer software.
If a red cross is over a device icon, the device has been disabled. Right-click on the device entry and left-click on Enable. Try to print again, if you are still unable to print please move to Step 17 to uninstall and reinstall the printer software.
It is possible to refresh the Parallel port, which is recommended if printouts have had garbled or strange characters, or the printer continuously feeds and ejects sheets of paper without attempting to print. To do this, right-click on the Printer Port (LPT1) then left-click on Uninstall.
Click OK to the Confirm Device Removal prompt. Click on Action at the top of the Device Manager window, then click on Scan for hardware changes. It should redetect the port and reinstall the driver.
Check that the printer is set as the default in the Printers folder.
This is important if you use the Print toolbar shortcut when printing from an application as this does not give you a choice of printer and sends the print job to the default printer.
Example of the Print toolbar shortcut:
If it is not set as the default (indicated by the tick above the icon), locate the printer icon for the printer that you want to be the default. Right-click on the icon then left-click on Set As Default. For detailed guidance, see Windows: Set the printer as default.
Check the print queue and printer status. If the document has not printed it may be that the printer is 'Paused', 'Offline' or documents are stuck in the print queue. Any documents in the queue will need to be cleared. Having jobs stuck in the queue could cause incorrect or garbled characters on printouts.
Open the Printers folder from the Control Panel.
Double-click on your printer icon.
If documents are in the queue and not printing, click on the Printer menu then Cancel All Documents.
If there is more than one icon for your Epson printer, such as Epson Stylus DX4800 Series and Epson Stylus DX4800 Series (Copy 1), cancel the documents for all instances of the driver and restart the computer.
Once restarted, open the Printers folder and check the status of the printer - this is normally stated by the printer icon.
If it is Paused or Offline, right-click on the printer icon and select the appropriate option e.g. 'Resume Printing', 'Use Printer Online'.
If a status is not given (e.g. 'Ready', 'Paused', 'Offline', 'Deleting'), right-click on the icon and if 'Resume Printing', or 'Use Printer Online' are listed, left-click on either of these options to reactivate the printer.
Check the correct port is selected in the Ports tab of the printer's Properties.
Should printing fail, it is possible that the information is being sent to the wrong port on the computer.
For example, if the printer is using a USB connection it must be set to use the USB port. This is normally configured during the installation of the printer, but if it has been changed or not set correctly, you must select it as the default port in the printer Properties.
Open the Printers folder.
Right-click on the printer icon then left-click on Properties.
Click on the Ports tab.
You can check the setting under 'Print to the following port(s)'. Make sure it is set correctly:
Printers connected via Parallel:
The port should be set to LPT1 (or LPT2, LPT3).
It is normally set to LPT1. If set incorrectly (e.g. FILE, PORT, COM1), click into the box beside LPT1 to tick it then click Apply.
Printers connected via USB:
The port should be set to USB Virtual Printer Port (such as USB001, USB002) with the printer name beside it. The default setting, if you do not have any other USB printers installed, is USB001.
If it is set incorrectly (e.g. FILE, PORT, COM1), click into the box beside a USB Virtual Printer Port to select it then click Apply.
If the correct port and driver are in use and the printer appears ready to print, test this by printing a Test Page from the printer Properties > General tab. Click here for help on how to do this. Results:
Should the Test Page not print, cancel all documents and move to the next step.
If printing is successful, try printing from a program that you had attempted to print from without success.
If you can print, the issue would appear to be resolved.
If you can print a Test Page from the printer Properties, but you cannot print from a particular program, try printing from an program which is native to Windows e.g. Paint, Notepad, Wordpad. These programs can be accessed from Start menu > All Programs > Accessories.
If you can print from these programs, the problem does not lie with the printer, communication between the printer and computer, nor the printer software. The problem is therefore with the program that you are attempting to print from (in which case contact the vendor), or there is a conflict on the computer. Move to Step 16 to disable programs running in the background.
If you cannot print from these programs, proceed to Step 17 to uninstall and reinstall the printer driver.
If printing is slow, see click here for further help.
Check that the correct printer driver for the operating system is in use.
An incorrect printer driver may be in use which can cause print jobs not to start, or for Status Monitor not to operate correctly. One of the following may have occurred, and thus the driver needs to be checked:
The original Epson printer software CD-ROM was used to install an Epson product released prior to 1st June 2007.
A Windows 2000 or XP driver has been downloaded from the Epson website and installed onto the Vista system.
A driver for a different Epson printer model is listed in the Printers folder.
An icon for your printer is not listed in the Printers folder.
Click on the Epson printer name so it is highlighted and the full name is displayed.
If your printer's model name ends with '50' or '05', the name in the folder will end with '00' instead. For example, if you had the Stylus DX6050 it will be listed here as the Stylus DX6000 Series. This applies to any A4 printer with a model name that ends with '50' or '05'. These products use the same driver and only standard model name is listed.
If the printer name is correct for your model move to Step 15.
If you think that the printer driver or name is not correct for your model, having read the information about Vista driver support above, click on the heading that best describes your query:
The original Epson printer software CD-ROM was used to install the Epson product.
A Windows 2000 or XP driver has been downloaded from the Epson website and installed onto the Vista computer.
Check the description and tables below to identify if the correct Vista driver is in use for your Epson product.
If the correct driver is in use, check that the printer name is correct (i.e. R265, not R270) and move to the next section.
a) If your printer is listed amongst these models, the driver name should end with '(M)':
(e.g. The R300 should be listed as Epson Stylus Photo R300 (M), not Epson Stylus Photo R300 or Epson Stylus R300 Series.)
b) If your printer is listed amongst the following Vista-supported models released before June 1st 2007, the original driver CD-ROM does not contain Vista drivers but a suitable Vista driver can be downloaded from the Epson website:
A driver for a different Epson printer model is listed in the Printers folder.
A printer driver icon for your printer is not listed in the Printers folder.
For example, if your printer is the Stylus Photo R240 but the printer icon is named 'Epson Stylus Photo R250', whilst the printers are almost identical but used in different regions, the driver may not work as it is named for another printer and may cause issues with the operation of Status Monitor and reporting ink cartridge information.
Figure 1: Example of the R250 driver being installed. For R240 users, the R240 icon would need to be present in order to print:
The wrong printer model was selected when you installed the printer driver as there was a choice of more than one model.
Figure 2: Example of the Epson Printer Utility Setup giving a choice of more than one printer model at the start of the installation. The R250 is a non-European model, so the R240 should be selected:
Figure 3: In this example the EPSON Printer Utility Setup gives a choice of two models and the DX5000 has been highlighted.
If you had a DX6000, you should click on to highlight 'EPSON Stylus DX6000 Series' then click OK:
The only instance where the name is slightly different but correct for your printer model is if you have the other edition in a 'Series'.
The name will always be for the first model in the series, e.g. a DX8450 will be listed as Epson Stylus DX8400, an SX205 as an SX200 etc.
If you have a different model and are unsure, click here
Whilst the printers are almost identical but used in different regions, the driver may not work as it is named for another printer. Uninstall and reinstall the driver, reinstalling either from the CD-ROM or from the Epson website. Proceed to Step 17, or for detailed guidance.
Disable programs running in the background to help identify if there is a software conflict.
The next stage in troubleshooting would be to disable the background programs that run in Windows. These can conflict with the printer software operation. This can cause the following symptoms:
The printer does not print.
The printer prints part of the print run or partial pages - does not complete print job.
You can print from some but not all programs.
Print quality issues.
Status Monitor does not operate / detect the printer.
Printing from the computer is slow.
If you are experiencing any of these problems, disable the Startup Items in the System Configuration Utility (MSconfig). Click here for a full guide.
If printing is not possible, the problem is not related to a conflict with a Startup Item or process. Follow the instructions in the guide to re-enable the Startup Items the move to the next step in this troubleshooting.
Slow printing can be caused by settings in the printer driver, the size of the data being sent to the printer (i.e. a large file such as a photo), in addition to the spooling system.
Uninstall and reinstall the printer driver. Should the issue still be present after following the advice above, the next step would be to uninstall and reinstall the printer driver, therefore restoring the driver to the default settings. Follow the section appropriate for how your printer connects to the computer:
If you have an All-In-One: Remove Epson Scan from Programs and Features in Control Panel. If you are asked to restart the computer at any point, choose 'Yes' or 'Restart'.
Make sure that your printer is still powered off and disconnected.
Once restarted, the drivers will need to be reinstalled. If you have the original Epson Software CD-ROM that came with your Epson printer, check the CD-ROM for any operating systems stated on it.
Only use the CD-ROM to install your Epson product if that product was released after Windows Vista. If in doubt, check the Epson website for drivers and download the drivers from there if available. Click here for help.
Only power on the printer and connect the USB cable from the printer to the USB port on the computer when prompted to by the installation program. Follow the on-screen prompts to complete the installation.
Once installed, restart the computer. Once restarted, try printing again. If this should fail, proceed to Step 18.
If the issue has not been resolved after uninstalling and reinstalling the printer driver, we recommend disabling USB error detection. If you are using your printer via a Parallel connection, this does not apply so move to the next step.
If the above troubleshooting fails to resolve the particular problem you are experiencing you could try a different cable completely or the same cable on another device.
Finally, if necessary, try the printer on another computer completely to establish where the problem lies. A computer with driver support for its operating system would be suitable, e.g. a Macintosh or a different version of Windows.
If the printer works on another system then it would indicate a problem with the computer. If the printer still does not work on another computer, then having gone through all of the above, we would recommend contacting Epson or taking your printer to the nearest Epson Express Centre for testing.
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